Selected Publications

Hashioka, S., Wu, Z., Klegeris A. (2021) Glia-driven neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Curr. Neuropharmacol. (in press) doi: 10.2174/1570159X18666201111104509

Wenzel, T.J., Ranger, A.L., McRae, S.A., Klegeris, A. (2021) Extracellular cardiolipin modulates microglial phagocytosis and cytokine secretion in a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-dependent manner. J. Neuroimmunol. 353:577496 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577496

Lowry, J.R., Marshall, N., Wenzel, T.J., Murray, T.E., Klegeris, A. (2020) The dietary fatty acids α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) selectively inhibit microglial nitric oxide production. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 109:103569 doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2020.103569

Klegeris A. (2020) Mixed-mode instruction using active learning in small teams improves generic problem-solving skills of university students. J. Furth. High. Educ. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2020.1826036

Wenzel, T.J., Kwong, E., Bajwa, E., Klegeris, A. (2020) Resolution-associated molecular patterns (RAMPs) as endogenous regulators of glia-mediated neuroinflammation. CNS Neurol. Disord. Drug Targets. 19(7):483-494 doi: 10.2174/1871527319666200702143719

Klegeris A. (2020) Regulation of neuroimmune processes by damage- and resolution-associated molecular patterns Neural Regen. Res. 16:423-9

Wenzel, T.J., Gates, E.J., Ranger, A.L., Klegeris, A. (2020) Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) alone or in combination regulate select immune functions of microglia-like cells Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 105:103493

Klegeris, A. (2020) Microglial targets for effective therapies of Alzheimer’s disease. Front. Drug Chem. Clin. Res. 3:1-4

Leitner, G., Wenzel, T.J., Marshall, N., Gates, E., Klegeris, A. (2019) Targeting toll-like receptor 4 to modulate neuroinflammation in central nervous system disorders. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets. 23:865-82

Wenzel, T.J., Bajwa, E., Klegeris, A. (2019) Cytochrome c can be released into extracellular space and modulate functions of human astrocytes in a toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner. Biochem. Biophys. Acta Gen. Subjects. 1863:129400

McKenzie, J.A., Barghash, R.F., Alsaggaf, A.T., Kulkarni, O., Boudreau, K., Menard, F., Neeland, E.G., Klegeris, A. (2019) Synthesis and evaluation of novel pyrazole ethandiamide compounds as inhibitors of human THP-1 monocytic cell neurotoxicity. Cells 8:655

Klegeris, A., Dubois, P.J., Code, W.J., Bradshaw, H. (2019) Non-linear improvement in generic problem-solving skills of university students: a longitudinal study. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 38:1432–44

Bajwa, E., Pointer, C.B., Klegeris, A. (2019) The role of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns in chronic neuroinflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2019:4050796

Alford, M.A., Tian, Z., Menard, F., Klegeris, A. (2019) Characterization of novel kainic acid analogs as inhibitors of select microglial functions. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 851:25-35

Pointer, C.B., Wenzel, T.J., Klegeris, A. (2019) Extracellular cardiolipin regulates select immune functions of microglia and microglia-like cells. Brain Res. Bull. 146:153-63

Spielman, L.J., Gibson, D.L., Klegeris, A. (2018) Unhealthy gut, unhealthy brain: The role of the intestinal microbiota in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem. Int. 120:149-163

Schindler, S.M., Frank, M.G., Annis, J.L., Maier, S.F., Klegeris, A. (2018) Pattern recognition receptors mediate pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 89:71-9

Lowry, J.R., Klegeris, A. (2018) Emerging roles of microglial cathepsins in neurodegenerative disease. Brain Res. Bull. 139:144-56

Klegeris, A. , Gustaffson, E., Hurren, H.,(2018) Generic problem-solving skills and academic ability of students as distinct skill sets revealed by an assessment panel and campus-wide testing. Compare J. Compar. Int. Edu. 48:674-85

Wenzel, T., Klegeris A. (2018) Novel multi-target directed ligand-based strategies for reducing neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease. Life Sci. 207:314-22

McKenzie, J.A., Klegeris, A. (2018) Modulation of microglial functions by methyl jasmonate. Neural Regen. Res. 13:1290-3

Raievskyi, A.V., Sharifi, M., Pinchuk, V., Klegeris, A. (2018) In silico design of novel gold-phosphate containing compounds as selective inhibitors of cathepsin B in neuroinflammation. Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflamm. 5:33

Slattery, W.T., Klegeris, A.(2018) Acetaminophen metabolites p-aminophenol and AM404 inhibit microglial activation. Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflamm. 5:11

Gouveia, A., Bajwa, E., Klegeris, A. (2017) Extracellular cytochrome C as an intercellular signaling molecule regulating microglial functions. Biochim Biophys Acta. Subjects 1861:2274-2281.

Spielman, L.J., Gibson, D.L., Klegeris, A. (2017) Incretin hormones regulate microglia oxidative stress, survival and expression of trophic factors Eur. J. Cell. Biol. 96:240-53

Bahniwal, M., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2017) High glucose enhances neurotoxicity and inflammatory cytokine secretion by stimulated human astrocytes. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 14:731-41

Spielman, L.J., Estaki, M., Ghosh, S., Gibson, D.L., Klegeris, A. (2017) The effects of voluntary wheel running on neuroinflammatory status: Role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 79:93-102

Klegeris, A., Barclay McKeown S., Hurren, H., Spielman, L.J., Stuart, M., Bahniwal, M. (2017) Dynamics of undergraduate student generic problem-solving skills captured by a campus-wide study. Higher Educ. 74:877–96

McKenzie, J.A., Spielman, L.J., Pointer, C.B., Lowry, J.R., Bajwa, E., Lee, C.W., Klegeris, A. (2017) Neuroinflammation as a common mechanism associated with the modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Curr. Aging Sci. 10:158-76

Pointer, C.B., Klegeris, A. (2017) Cardiolipin in central nervous system physiology and pathology Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 37:1161-72

Hashioka, S., Suzuki, H., Nakajima, D., Miyaoka, T., Wake, R., Hayashida, M., Horiguchi, J., Klegeris, A. (2016) Metabolomics analysis implies noninvolvement of the kynurenine pathway neurotoxins in the interferon-γ-induced neurotoxicity of adult human astrocytes. Neuropsychiatry (London) 7:610–7

Bajwa, E., Pointer, C.B., Klegeris, A. (2016) Modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease and neuroinflammation: What are the links? Future Neurol. 11:237-44

Schindler, S.M., Bajwa, E., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2016) Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial cells. Neuroimmunol. Neuroinflammation 3:232-42

Schindler, S.M., Klegeris, A. (2016) Elucidating the link between the modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and neuroinflammation. Neurodegener. Dis. Manag. 6:375-84

Spielman, L.J., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2016) Physical activity and exercise attenuate neuroinflammation in neurological diseases. Brain Res. Bullet. 125:19-29

Spielman, L.J., Bahniwal, M., Little, J.P., Walker, D.G., Klegeris, A. (2015) Insulin modulates in vitro secretion of cytokines and cytotoxins by human glial cells. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 12:684-693

Schindler, S.M., Spielman, L.J., Pointer, C., Bajwa, E., Slattery, W.T., McKenzie, J., Lowry, J.R., Klegeris, A. (2015) An interplay between neuroinflammation and modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In 'Neuroinflammation in Disease: Risk Factors, Management and Outcomes’ Dawson, R.K. (Ed.), pp. 1-56, Nova Publishers, New York.

Madeira, J.M., Schindler, S.M., Klegeris, A. (2015) A new look at auranofin, dextromethorphan and rosiglitazone for reduction of glia-mediated inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases Neural Regener. Res. 10:391-393

Villanueva E.B., Little, J.P., Klegeris A. (2015) Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson's disease. Recent Adv. Med. Chem. 2:59-75

Schindler, S.M., Spielman, L.J., Bajwa, E., Slattery, W.T., Harris, D.B., Klegeris, A. (2015) The diversity of microglial activators and their elicited responses: Implications for central nervous system functions. In ‘Microglia: Physiology, Regulation and Health Implications’ Giffard, E.R. (Ed.), pp.113-156, Nova Publishers, New York.

Spielman, L.J., Klegeris, A. (2014) The role of insulin and incretins in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Immunoendocrinology, 1:e391

Madeira, J.M., Bajwa, E., Stuart, M.J., Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A.  (2014) Gold drug auranofin could reduce neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglia cytotoxic secretions and primed respiratory burst. J. Neuroimmunol. 276, 71-79

Schindler, S.M., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2014) Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM): A novel brain intercellular signaling molecule and microglial activator. Inflam. Cell Signal. 1:224-229

Spielman, L.J., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2014) Inflammation and insulin/IGF-1 resistance as the possible link between obesity and neurodegeneration. J. Neuroimmunol. 273:8-21

Little, J.P., Simtchouk, S., Villanueva, E.M., Gill, N.E., Walker, D.G., Wolthers, K.R., Klegeris, A. (2014) Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) is a pro-inflammatory extracellular signaling molecule recognized by brain microglia. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 60:88-96

Schindler, S.M., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2014) Microparticles: A new perspective in central nervous system disorders. BMRI Neurosci. 2014: 756327

Wan, Z., Mah, D., Simtchouk, S., Klegeris, A., Little J.P. (2014) Globular adiponectin induces a pro-inflammatory response in human astrocytic cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 446:37-42

Hashioka, S., Wang, Y.F., Little, J.P., Choi, H.B., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L., McLarnon, J.G. (2014) Purinergic responses of calcium-dependent signaling pathways in cultured adult human astrocytes. BMC Neurosci. 15:18

Madeira, J.M., Renschler, C.J., Mueller, B., Hashioka, S., Gibson, D.L., Klegeris, A.  (2013) Novel protective properties of auranofin: inhibition of human astrocyte cytotoxic secretions and direct neuroprotection. Life Sci. 92:1072-80

Bahniwal, M., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2013) Regulation of glial metabolism and immune responses by insulin. In Glial Cells: Embryonic Development, Types/Functions and Role in Disease. Kaur, C., Ling E.A. (Eds.) pp. 117-146, Nova Publishers, New York.

Ryu, J.K., Little J.P., Klegeris, A., Jantaratnotai, N., McLarnon, J.G. (2013) Actions of the anti-angiogenic compound angiostatin in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 10:252-260

Klegeris, A., Bahniwal, M., Hurren, H. (2013) Improvement in generic problem-solving abilities of students by use of tutor-less problem based learning in a large classroom setting. CBE Life Sci. Educ. 12:73-79

Madeira, J.M., Little, J.P., Klegeris, A. (2012) Microglia secretome: from neurotoxins to neurotrophins.  In Microglia: Biology, Functions and Roles in Disease. Kaur, C., Ling, E.A. (Eds.) pp. 73-92, Nova Publishers, New York.

Madeira, J.M., Gibson, D.L., Kean, W.F., Klegeris, A. (2012) The biological activity of auranofin: implications for novel treatment of diseases. Inflammopharmacology 20:297-306  

Villanueva, E.B., Little, J.P., Lambeau, G., Klegeris, A. (2012) Secreted phospholipase A2 group IIA is a neurotoxin released by stimulated human glial cells. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 49:430-438.

Little, J.P., Madeira, J.M., Klegeris, A. (2012) The saturated fatty acid palmitate induces human monocytic cell toxicity towards neuronal cells: exploring a possible link between obesity-related metabolic impairments and neuroinflammation. J. Alzheim. Dis. 30, Suppl. 2: S179-S183.

Madeira, J.M., Beloukhina, N., Boudreau, K., Boettcher, T. Gurley, L., Walker, D.G., McNeil, W.S., Klegeris, A. (2012) Cobalt(II) beta-ketoaminato complexes as novel inhibitors of neuroinflammation.  Eur. J. Pharmacol. 676: 81-88.

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2012) The histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid attenuates human astrocyte neurotoxicity induced by interferon-gamma. J. Neuroinflam. 9:113

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2012) Inhibition of human astrocyte and microglia neurotoxicity by calcium channel blockers. Neuropharmacology 63: 685-691 IF=4.8 A

Bahniwal, M., Villanueva, E.B. Klegeris A. (2011) Moderate increase in temperature may exacerbate neuroinflammatory processes in the brain: human cell culture studies. J. Neuroimmunol. 233:65-72

Ionescu, V.A., Villanueva, E.B., Hashioka, S. Bahniwal, M., Klegeris A. (2011) Cultured adult porcine astrocytes and microglia cells express functional interferon-gamma receptors and exhibit toxicity towards SH-SY5Y cells. Brain Res. Bullet. 84:244-251

Little, J.P., Villanueva, E.B., Klegeris. A. (2011) Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of neuroinflammation associated with Parkinson’s disease. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 11:582-590

Gurley, L., Beloukhina, N., Boudreau, K., Klegeris,A., McNeil, W.S. (2011) The synthesis and characterization of a series of cobalt(II) beta-ketoaminato complexes and their anticancer activity towards human tumor cell lines. J. Inorg. Biochem. 105:858-66

Klegeris A., Hurren H. (2011) Problem-based learning in large classrooms: assessing student perception and problem-solving skills. Adv. Physiol. Educ. 35:408-415

Hashioka, S., McLarnon, J.G., Ryu, J.K., Youssef, A.M., Abd-El-Aziz, A.S., Neeland, E.G., Klegeris, A. (2011) Pyrazole compound 2-MBAPA as a novel inhibitor of microglial activation and neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. J. Alzheim. Dis. 27:531-541

Ghosh, S., Dai, C., Brown, K., Rajendiran, E., Makarenko, S., Baker, J., Ma, C., Halder, S., Montero, M., Ionescu, V.A., Klegeris, A., Vallance, B.A., Gibson, D.L. (2011) Colonic microbiota alters host susceptibility to infectious colitis by modulating inflammation, redox status and ion transporter gene expression. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 301:G39-49

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Qing, H., McGeer, P.L. (2011) STAT3 inhibitors attenuate interferon-γ-induced neurotoxicity and inflammatory molecule production by human astrocytes. Neurobiol. Disease, 41:299-307

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2011) Proton pump inhibitors reduce interferon-gamma-induced neurotoxicity and STAT3 phosphorylation of human astrocytes. Glia, 59: 833-840

Youssef, A.M., Neeland, E.G., Villanueva, E.B., White M.S., El-Ashmawy, I.M., Patrick, B., Klegeris, A., Abd-El-Aziz, A.S. (2010) Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazole compounds. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18:5685-5696

Youssef, A.M., White, M.S., Villanueva, E.B., El-Ashmawy, I.M., Klegeris, A. (2010) Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazolyl-2,4-thiazolidinediones as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18:2019-2028

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Qing, H., McGeer, P.L. (2011) STAT3 inhibitors attenuate interferon-gamma-induced neurotoxicity and inflammatory molecule production by human astrocytes. Neurobiol. Disease 41:299-307

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Yu, S., Schwab, C., McGeer, P.L. Differential expression of interferon-gamma receptor on human glial cells in vivo and in vitro. (in press, J. Neuroimmunol.)

Schwab, C., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2010) Inflammation in transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative disorders. Biochim. Biophys. Acta – Mol. Basis Dis. 1802:889–902

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Schwab, C., McGeer, P.L. (2009) Interferon-gamma-dependent cytotoxic activation of human astocytes and astrocytoma cells. Neurobiol. Aging 30:1924-1935

Shipley, P.R., Donnelly, C.C.A., Le, C.H., Bernauer, A.D., Klegeris, A. (2009) Antitumor activity of asukamycin, a secondary metabolite from the actinomycete bacterium Streptomyces nodosus subspecies asukaensis. Int. J. Mol. Med. 24:711-715

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2009) Proton pump inhibitors exert anti-inflammatory effects and decrease human microglial and monocytic THP-1 cell neurotoxicity Exp. Neurol. 217:177-183

Klegeris, A., Pelech, S.L., Giasson, B.I., Maguire, J., Zhang, H., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (2008) a-Synuclein activates stress signaling protein kinases in THP-1 cells and microglia. Neurobiol. Aging 29:739–752

Klegeris, A., Li, J., Bammler, T., Jin, J., Zhu, D., Kashima, D., Pan, S., Hashioka, S., Maguire, J., McGeer, P.L., Zhang, J. (2008) Prolyl endopeptidase is revealed following SILAC analysis to be a novel mediator of human microglial and THP-1 cell neurotoxicity. Glia 56:675–685

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Schwab, C., McGeer, P.L. Interferon-g-dependent cytotoxic activation of human astocytes and astrocytoma cells. Neurobiol. Aging (2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.02.019)

Hashioka, S., Miklossy, J., Schwab, C., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. Adhesion of exogenous human microglia and THP-1 cells to amyloid plaques of post mortem Alzheimer disease brain. J. Alzheimers Dis. (2008)

Klegeris, A., McGeer, E.G., McGeer, P.L. (2007) Therapeutic approaches to inflammation in neurodegenerative disease. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 20:351-357

Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. (2007) Complement activation by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and alpha-synuclein 112. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 357:1096-1099

Klegeris, A., Choi, H.B., McLarnon, J.G., McGeer, P.L. (2007) Functional ryanodine receptors are expressed by human microglia and THP-1 cells: Their possible involvement in modulation of neurotoxicity. J. Neurosci. Res. 85:2207-2215

Klegeris, A., Schulzer, M., Harper, D.G. and McGeer, P.L. (2007) Increase in core body temperature of Alzheimer’s disease patients as a possible indicator of chronic neuroinflammation: A meta-analysis. Gerontology 53: 7-1

Hashioka, S., Klegeris, A., Kato, T., Monji, A., Sawada, M., McGeer, P.L., Kanba, S. (2007) Antidepressants inhibit interferon-gamma-induced microglial production of IL-6 and nitric oxide. Exp. Neurol. 206:33-42

Klegeris, A., Giasson, B.I., Zhang, H., Maguire, J., Pelech, S.L. and McGeer, P.L. (2006) Alpha-synuclein and its disease-causing mutants induce ICAM-1 and IL-6 in human astrocytes and astrocytoma cells FASEB J. 20: 2000-2008

Miklossy, J., Arai, T. Guo, J.P., Klegeris, A., Yu, S., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (2006) LRRK2 expression in normal and pathologic human brain and in human cell lines J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 65: 953-963

Shih, A.Y., Fernandes H.B., Choi, F.Y., Kozoriz, M.G., Liu, Y. Li, P., Cowan, C.M. and Klegeris, A. (2006) Policing the police: astrocytes modulate microglial activation [comment]. J. Neurosci. 26: 3887-3888

Arai, T., Miklossy, J., Klegeris, A., Guo, J.P. and McGeer, P.L. (2006) Thrombin and prothrombin are expressed by neurons and glial cells and accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease brain. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol. 65:19-25

Klegeris, A., Bissonnette, C.J. and McGeer, P.L. (2005) Modulation of human microglia and THP-1 monocytic cell neurotoxicity by cytokines endogenous to the nervous system. Neurobiol. Aging 26: 673-682

Klegeris, A. and McGeer, P.L. (2005) Chymotrypsin-like proteases contribute to human monocytic THP-1 cell as well as human microglial neurotoxicity. Glia 51: 56-64

Klegeris, A. and McGeer, P.L. (2005) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 2: 355-365

Klegeris, A., Maguire, J. and McGeer, P.L. (2004) S- but not R-enantiomers of flurbiprofen and ibuprofen reduce human microglial and THP-1 cell neurotoxicity. J. Neuroimmunol. 152: 73-77

Bissonnette, C.J., Klegeris, A., McGeer, P.L. and McGeer, E.G. (2004) Interleukin 1a and interleukin 6 protect neuronal SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative damage. Neurosci. Lett. 361: 40-43

Klegeris, A., Bissonnette, C.J. and McGeer, P.L. (2003) Reduction of human monocytic cell neurotoxicity and cytokine secretion by ligands of the cannabinoid type CB2 receptor. Br. J. Pharmacol. 139: 775-786

Klegeris, A. and McGeer, P.L. (2003) Toxicity of human monocytic THP-1 cells and microglia toward SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells is reduced by inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and its activating protein FLAP. J. Leukoc. Biol. 73: 369-378

Hosokawa, M., Klegeris, A., Maguire, J. and McGeer, P.L. (2003) Expression of complement messenger RNAs and proteins by human oligodendroglial cells. Glia 42: 417-423

Klegeris, A., Singh, E.A. and McGeer, P.L. (2002) Effects of C reactive protein and pentosan polysulfate on human complement activation. Immunology 16: 381-388

Klegeris, A., Liutkevicius, E., Mikalauskiene, G., Duburs, G., McGeer, P.L. and Klusa, V. (2002) Anti-inflammatory effects of cerebrocrast in a model of rat paw edema and on human mononuclear phagocytes. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 441: 203-208

Klegeris, A., McGeer, E.G. and McGeer, P.L. (2000) Inhibitory action of 1 (2 chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1 methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide (PK 11195) on some mononuclear phagocyte functions. Biochem. Pharmacol. 59: 1305-1314

Klegeris, A. and McGeer, P.L. (2000) Interaction of various intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in mononuclear phagocyte toxicity toward neuronal cells. J. Leukoc. Biol. 67: 127-133

Klegeris, A. and McGeer, P.L. (2000) R-( )-Deprenyl inhibits monocytic THP 1 cell neurotoxicity independently of monoamine oxidase inhibition. Exp. Neurol. 166: 458-464

Klegeris, A., Bissonnette, C.J., Dorovini-Zis, K. and McGeer, P.L. (2000) Expression of complement messenger RNAs by human endothelial cells. Brain Res. 871: 1-6

Klegeris, A., Walker, D.G. and McGeer, P.L. (1999) Toxicity of human THP 1 monocytic cells towards neuron-like cells is reduced by non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Neuropharmacology 38: 1017-1025.

Klegeris, A., Budd, T.C. and Greenfield, S.A. (1996) Acetylcholinesterase-induced respiratory burst in macrophages: evidence for the involvement of the macrophage mannose-fucose receptor. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1289: 159-168.

"You are not here merely to make a living. You are here to enable the world to live more amply, with greater vision, and with a finer spirit of hope and achievement. You are here to enrich the world. You impoverish yourself if you forget this errand."
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"The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them."
- Sir William Bragg