These are the major functional groups used in organic chemistry, arranged in order of their nomenclature priorities. The table also includes their suffixes if they are the functional group of the molecule, as well as what you would call it if it were a substituent.
|Functional group||Substituent name||Functional group suffix|
|Carboxylic acids||carboxy||-oic acid|
|Sulfonic acids||sulfo(nyl)||-sulfonic acid|
|Acid halides||halocarbonyl||-yl halide|
|Aldehydes||formyl||-al (or -carbaldehyde)|
Adapted from "Organic Nomenclature", Traynham, James 1997 (Prentice-Hall, Inc.)